Guyana: Day 4 – Let's Get to Work

Today was our day to get down to business and start talking seriously with DDL's blender Sharon Sue-Hang Baksh about our exclusive rum blend for K&L. As I mentioned in the week leading up to our departure, I'm interested in building a serious relationship with DDL and a creating a sustainable (as in: we can sustain our supply) product that isn't a one-off or a super limited release you have to buy within the first few days before it sells out. I'm sure we'll talk about single casks and older, more allocated rums as we continue to prove ourselves as an ambassador for Guyana's finest spirits, but I don't want to bombard consumers who don't yet understand what makes these rums so amazing with something esoteric or expensive. I wouldn't give someone new to single malt a single barrel cask strength whisky, so I don't think we should do that with rum either. We'll need to prove ourselves with this project – both to DDL and our customers – before we start getting fancy.

We're working with a strong single malt whisky consumer base, so we obviously wanted to create something robust and flavorful, rather than light and smooth. The key to that creating that intensity is the PM double pot still distillate. The heavy, funky, rather sulfurous character captures and retains the flavors inherent in the molasses. Most of us in the states think of pancake syrup when we hear "molasses," however, the black strap stuff is thick, highly-fragrant and has almost an anise, clove, and root beer like aroma. The smell of fermenting molasses can get pretty intense if you're around it too long. The pot-distilled rums from DDL capture more of that character than their column distilled brethren, so we wanted a heavy amount of the Port Mourant rum in the blend.

That being said, we also really enjoyed the fruity and floral flavors of the Savalle still rums.  Even though most people swear by the 15 year (mostly because of its cepage of older, pot-still rums), I'm a huge fan of the El Dorado 12. I love the soft, supple mouthfeel and the subtle cane flavor that penetrates the finish. Finding a balance of those two rum styles, at an age that was appropriate for our needs, was going to be our task that afternoon. We obviously wanted to present something sippable, but thought it would be great if the rum was also affordable, so that our customers wouldn't be afraid to mix with it. The 12 and 15 year El Dorado rums are amazing on their own, but they're incredible in a Daiquiri or rocks-based cocktail. I had never even thought about using the 12 as a Daiquiri base until I tasted one on this trip. I've never been a fan of añejo Margaritas, so I'd never even considered using it. I had always opted for the El Dorado 3 year because it's fresh and clean like a blanco tequila.

Speaking of whites, we also wanted to explore the idea of a pot-heavy white mixer for rum geeks who want that fuller body and more intense character in their cocktails. We worked with a few ideas that consisted of 50% or more pot distillate, but we found that the more subtle flavors were completely wiped out by the potency of the PM. By scaling back the percentage we were able to coax out more of the fruity, almond-like notes present in the straight Savalle distillate. Since these the flavors from these two stills were by far our favorites, we decided not to complicate things by adding in the EHP wooden Coffey still rums or some of the other high-ester spirits. One thing I absolutely wanted to make sure of was that we would be able to clearly to explain to each customer why they were tasting what they were tasting. By focusing solely on the very different characters of these two rums, we would easily be able to contrast the lighter against the heavier style in our final flavor profile.

We didn't also didn't want to bottle a full proof rum.  62% spirits tend to scare away some of the uninitiated, however, a standard 40% rum wasn't exactly what we wanted either. We figured 100 proof might be the ticket for the rum as it would provide the maximum level of alcohol before requiring us to pay extra taxes, which would raise our overall price. We tasted the rums at both higher and lower levels, but we also made samples to bring back home in our suitcases, which would allow the blends more time to congeal and come together. Now we can assess our work later on with the council of the K&L staff before making a final decision. So far, I'm very excited about what we've been able to hammer out in a very short amount of time.

And…how awesome is it that El Dorado's blender is a woman? We don't see a lot of women in authority positions here in the booze business, so I'm always excited to get the feminine perspective from a producer (mainly because they're often better tasters than men and they're much easier to work with). It's definitely a male dominated industry, especially on the production side of things. But, let me tell you: it's the women who are running the show at DDL and so far they're the most organized operation I've ever worked with. Everything ran like clockwork during our stay in Guyana and it wasn't because of the men (nothing against the men, either). Besides Sharon, there's Nalini running the American side of the business from New York as the U.S. brand ambassador, Najuma working in the chemistry lab with Shaun, and Tamsia in control of the international office, along with her two assistants – Sanja and Amanda, who are as sharp as tacks. We spent a lot of time with these women and they are the real deal. Tamsia pretty much dedicated her entire week to making sure we were on schedule to accomplish all of our goals, which was great for us because she's such a joy to work with. I'm going to be very sad when we have to say goodbye to everyone.

-David Driscoll


Guyana: Day 3 – Uitvlugt - Part II

After touring the ICBU sugar factory, we headed over to the former ICBU distillery where DDL still houses a great number of casks. The equipment, however, has been stripped and taken over to the Diamond site, so only a shell of the original building remains. DDL had three main distilleries before the consolidation was finalized about fifteen years ago: Diamond, Uitvlugt, and Enmore.

The warehouses are huge and they're absolutely packed with mature barrels. There's a lot of rum in wood at the Uitvlugt facility.

When the rums are ready for bottling, the team rolls the barrels over to a grate in the floor where the bung is removed and the rum is transferred to a tanker. 

Just outside the former distillery and down the small river lies the vast sugar cane fields that stretch all the way out to the coast. After taking a short walk through the estate, we hopped in the car and headed back over the Demerara river towards Diamond to make some rum.

We got back to the DDL site where the engineers were waiting to give me a lesson in column still distillation. If you've ever been confused about the difference between column and pot still distillation (like maybe you've heard a bunch of people talk about how superior pot stills are, but not specifically why that might be), then let me clear it up for you real easily. Making whisky in a pot still is basically like boiling a pot on the stove and then trapping the alcoholic vapor into a copper neck, which feeds it into a condenser. Once you've boiled all your alcoholic beverage and the alcohol is evaporated, you have to start over – clean out the pot, and then begin again with a new batch. A column still, however, can run for weeks and weeks without ever needing to stop and reload. The liquid is fed into the first column and it keeps pouring it until you run out of wash (which is never at DDL). Even if you need to switch up the type of spirit, this can be done without halting the process or slowing it down. As the vapor goes up the column through each plate, more and more alcohol is rectified.

The more advanced the column still, the more you can manipulate the distillate by increasing or decreasing the rectification process (therefore resulting in a cleaner or heavier spirit). The "new" still at El Dorado can crank out 15,000 liters a day and it's all operated from the control room. The engineers can monitor the proof and the efficiency of all the distillate coming off the four columns. Three of the four were in operation while I was watching. There's another tall Coffey column still (pictured above) next to the "new" still, which functions much the same way, but has a set of copper coils between each plate to increase the ester content of the distillate.

If you need to check quality, you can always hit the valve on each column and take a sample. This one tasted fresh and clean.

When the others got back from their day with Shaun, I headed out with Najuma for downtown Georgetown where we met up with them at a local bar. We had a few beers, some fried snapper with hot sauce, and took in some of the local culture.

The best part, however, was when Shaun took us by one the DDL employee's house for what's called a "9 Day Party" in Guyana. After a child is born, the family throws a party nine days later for friends and family in celebration. We had an absolute blast hanging out on the street, drinking rum cocktails, and listening to music. The new baby, Mia, was adorable and definitely worthy of all the praise.

-David Driscoll


Guyana: Day 3 – Uitvlugt

We had two options for what we wanted to do on our third day in Guyana: go with master distiller Shaun Caleb on a trek into the Guyanese jungle, or do some things around the distillery. David OG and I decided to split up as best to exploit our resource: I could bug the operations staff all day, while David could spend more time pumping Shaun for information. David OG might be a bit jealous, however, because I managed to convince DDL to call the Guyanese government and give me a tour of the state-owned Guysuco Uitvlugt-Leonara sugar estate factory. I told Komal last night that we were dedicated to El Dorado because they're one of the most open and transparent companies we've ever worked with. I stressed to him that the more information about rum he could present me with, the more I could make the case for his brand; "We're all about communicating the story to our customers," I said. "Then you should learn how we get our molasses," he replied. 


After the others departed around 8:30, I hopped in a car with distillery chemist Najuma Nelson and we headed west, across the expansive Demerara river (and over a mile-long floating bridge) towards Uitvlught where the factory sits and high-quality Demerara sugar is produced.

The town of Versailles is on the way to Uitvlugt and our driver was able to point out where the old estate was from where DDL sourced its ancient single wooden pot still. Remember there were once more than 370 sugar estates and distilleries operating in Guyana. Serious booze history is just about everywhere you look.

Preparations for Mashramani, the Guyanese version of Carnivale, were going on all along the road, as well. Sunday is the big celebration, but of course we're leaving Saturday. "You came all the way to Guyana and you're leaving the day before Mashramani?" everyone asked us. Great planning on our part. Maybe I can extend my flight to Monday.

I don't think the Guysuco sugar factory gets many visitors. Of the few they might get, I don't think any of them are Americans with notebooks taking an excessive amount of pictures. I definitely stood out like a sore thumb, but I was given a warm welcome and everyone was very helpful. ICBU stands for Isaac Christiany Boody/Uitvlugt, which you may recognize from El Dorado's single still series we're currently selling. That's because the Savalle still was taken from the former Uitvlugt distillery, which was located right next door to the ICBU factory, so both facilities share the same name. Distilleries were built in Guyana only as part of a sugar estate, but Uitvlugt was closed in 2000 and the equipment was moved to Diamond distillery.

And now I understand why there's a small river flowing through the Diamond distillery that seems to serve little purpose! While the Diamond sugar estate no longer exists, it did at one point and its purpose was to transfer the harvested cane to the crusher. While some operations have moved over to mechanical harvesting, the plant manager said all his cane is still harvested by knife or machete.

Each boat is lifted by the towering crane and dumped into an absolutely massive crusher. I don't think I can properly convey through words and photography what an experience this factory was. It was like being transported back into the early days of industrialization and I loved every second that I spent there.

I'm not sure you can see drop the photo the size and scale of what's going on at ICBU. You're walking incredibly close, over metal bridges and walkways, and on top of a gigantic grinder that's pulverizing the cane and squeezing out the sweet juice. The leftover material is called bagasse and is used for a variety of other things. Even my wide angle lens couldn't take in the entire scene, so I'm going to post another one below.

Don't fall in!

And here's the long view.

And once again from above!

 The juice is then transferred into these giant tanks called evaporators where the water is separated through boiling.

And out comes the syrup!

Molasses, of course, is what's left after much of the initial sugar has been removed from the juice. As it boils it continues to separate sugar into crystals.

The guys can monitor the situation by taking a sample and putting it on the microscope to check the crystallization.

And then, in a room with weird lighting, you separate those crystals into sugar. Demerara sugar is never completely refined, which is part of what gives it its special flavor and sweetness. The result is delicious.

More later! I've gotta run over to the distillery and make some rum!

-David Driscoll


Guyana: Day 2 – DDL Diamond Distillery

David OG made a great point during one of our various, long, detailed, and magnificent conversations about rum today. He said, "When we talk about whiskey we're talking about various types of spirits with different flavors, but most people think rum is just one thing." It isn't, however. There isn't one type of rum, just like there isn't one type of whiskey, and there's no better example of that fact than the Demerara Diamond distillery where more than twelve stills make a multitude of different rum styles with numerous flavor profiles. For the El Dorado brand, DDL has a distinct advantage with their historical distillates that couldn't be produced or recreated anywhere else.

We know that DDL has a long and storied history, but I'll get more into that tomorrow. Let's focus on just the incredible distillery for now because there's a lot to talk about. The Diamond campus, which consolidates stills from three other former distilleries (imagine if the stills from Port Ellen, Brora, and Rosebank were all moved into Caol Ila), is one of the most diverse and fascinating spirits facilities we've ever visited. Everything is happening right in front of you, out in the open, and it's all self-sustained. The boiler room, which you can see here, begins the process by powering the facility with steam. It's run mostly by methane, which is created by fermenting the spent rum wash and trapping the resulting gas. They installed it in 2010, which ended their dependency on oil.

Like we've seen at Four Roses and Wild Turkey, yeast is an important factor in keeping the flavor profile of El Dorado consistent. They have an entire room with four separate vats dedicated to the propagation of yeast cells, derived from a combination of both local strains and purchased distiller's yeast. You could smell the fruity, almost white wine-like aromas drifting out of the steel tanks. 

That yeast is unleashed into a house formula of one part molasses to four parts water, creating a sugary liquid with a Brix level of 19. All of the molasses comes from Demerara sugar cane, grown specifically along the Caribbean coast. Guyana is an incredibly fertile land. It's said that if you eat a piece of fruit and accidentally drop a seed, you'll likely return to that spot later and find a small tree growing where you left it. Part of this fertility is due to the fact that the coastal regions of Guyana are actually below sea level; it was originally colonized by the Dutch, who were very good at draining the land and creating cultivatable space. 

Guyana is also quite close to the equator with a temperate maritime climate, allowing for perfect growing conditions. Their sugar cane is therefore some of the finest in existence, and the by-product of this cane – the black strap molasses – is some of the best for fermentation. There are eight closed fermentation tanks at Diamond distillery, along with five gigantic open vats. They distill around the clock and almost every day of the year.

But let's get to the stills because, really, this is why we're here. What needs to be stressed before we break down each device is this: the El Dorado rums are not simply the same rums at various age levels. The 15 year is not simply an older version of the 12. The 21 year is not simply an older version of the 15, and it's not just different barrels from various parts of the warehouse that distinguish them from one another. They are all different combinations of rum from a formula that uses various combinations of the individual distillates. For example: 

- the 3 year old uses mostly light to medium-bodied rum from the Savalle still with a bit of the copper column still.

- the 12 year is comprised of rums from the wooden Coffey still, the copper Coffey still, the double pot, and the Savalle still.

- the 15 year uses a majority of rums from the single and double wooden pot stills, giving it a more robust flavor.

To understand each of the selections, however, you have to understand what makes each still unique, and how that uniqueness affects the ultimate flavor. The EHP wooden column still, which you can see in the above photo, is said to be an exact replica of the first still built by Coffey himself in the 1800s. Even the plates inside of it are wooden and the spirit distilled from it is incredibly unique when compared against the standard copper version. 

Then you've got the Port Mourant double wooden pot still – an antique built in the 1700s from local Greenheart wood (also used for building ships) valued for its incredible durability. The still is completely heated by a steam pipe that injects the piping hot vapor directly into the liquid. The escaping alcohol vapors are then condensed directly into a second wooden pot still that uses the incoming heat from the vapor to create a second distillation. It's not over yet, however, as the second distillation passes through a gigantic copper rectifier to increase the ester content before the final condensation.

Speaking of esters, there's an all-copper "high ester" still right next to the PM double pot. Esters are the aromatic and flavorful compounds found in fruit and flowers that we taste and smell when we interact with them. In distillation, they're the result of the fermenting alcohol coming into contact with the leftover acidity. When slowly dragged over copper while vaporizing, these compounds become highly pungent and the "high ester" still is specifically designed to maximize their intensity by increasing their exposure to the metal. For example, the Savalle still creates a spirit with about 20 ppm of esters and the double wooden still about 50 ppm. In contrast, the "high ester" still results in a spirit with 10,000 ppm of esters, which is mind-boggling because at 50 ppm you're already tasting the esters in the PM distillate. Tasting rum from the "high-ester" still is like numbing your tongue with intensity, rather than alcohol. It's absolutely insane and difficult to describe.

Then there's the single wooden pot still taken from an old Versailles distillery (Versailles is a small town West of Georgetown on the way to Uitvlugt) that adds a another antique option to the mix. Keeping up the heritage and quality of production is very important to El Dorado, or else there would be no reason to use these old things. Making rum in the wooden pots is three times more expensive than using the column stills, so there's no economic motivation. Each batch also takes 16 hours as the wood helps to maintain the vapor inside the still longer than a standard copper pot would.

The jewel of the Diamond estate, however, might be the Savalle still taken in the late 90s from the former Uitvlugt (pronounced eye-flut) distillery. Because of the various columns and how they are arranged, it's possible to make nine different rum distillates depending on how much you want to rectify the spirit. There's the possibility of total neutrality, or a floral and fruity distillate that makes you want to sing! The forth column is specifically designed to enhance the natural flavors in the fermenting wash, so there are a lot of options. 

Then there's the standard copper Coffey still, which does the same as the wooden still, but rather with more copper contact for a higher ester content. El Dorado's master distiller is Shaun Caleb, a Princeton-educated Guyanese local who spent years working under the legendary George Robinson. When George passed in 2012, the torch was given to Shaun who was expected to lead DDL into the future. I think they made the right move. Shaun is knowledgeable, kind, and humble. He listens more than he talks, which is always a good sign. The man knows as much about distillation as anyone I've ever met.

Of course, there's the "new" still, which you can see all the way from our guest house – a gigantic monolith that can crank out 15,000 gallons of spirit a day. That's where the majority of the bulk spirit comes from. We did get a chance to taste white spirits from each of the stills and the differences are highly noticeable. Being able to blend from various distillates is a huge advantage and it's something that Diageo pays heavily for with their Johnnie Walker whiskies, blended from a number of different distillates from various distilleries. Here at DDL, it's all done under one roof.

Between their five warehouses (they still use the old sites of Uitvlugt and other estates for their storage, a la Kentucky producers with Stitzel Weller and Old Crow, etc.), DDL has more than 100,000 barrels aging around the country. 20-30% of that stock is sitting at the Diamond estate. The barrels are stacked vertically to maximize space and the hot, humid climate causes the spirit to evaporate much faster than our cooler conditions at home. It's not uncommon to lose 50-55% of the barrel over time. Much to my surprise, there is absolutely no sherry maturation happening at DDL. All of their rum is aged in refill Bourbon casks that have been stripped and re-coopered to expose more of the fresh oak underneath the char. The sweetness is simply due to rapid maturation and evaporation under the extremely humid conditions. No barrel is used more than five times (for younger rums) or ten years for the older stuff. After a rum passes ten years in wood, it's racked into a new barrel.

With so many distillates going into wood, how do you keep track of what's what?! Very carefully.

We took a break after our tour and later in the evening went into Georgetown to have dinner with DDL Chairman Komal Samaroo. We're really looking forward to working with him and his team. I cannot express to you how fantastic it is to have the opportunity to express your aims and goals with the person in charge of operations. It's entirely different than meeting with a sales rep or assistant and I think we really communicated our hopes effectively. It was an exciting moment for both David and myself.

-David Driscoll


Guyana: Day 1 - Into the Night, Awaken Anew

INTERNET! We've had some technical difficulties over here, but I've got them worked out for now. Let's get you all up to speed.

We landed in Georgetown late last evening and the air was electric. There was no terminal for the plane to pull into, so we exited onto a stair cart and stepped into the humid Guyana night. There was an energy on the tarmac – a feeling that we had finally arrived in the tropics. Whereas the airport in Trinidad was industrial and standardized, the scene at Cheddi Jagan International was entirely different. We all felt a jolt of excitement as we walked through the colorful hallways and into the customs office. There are six main cultures in Guyana, all living together along in northern South America: Chinese, Indian, Portuguese, African, Amerindian, and the mixed Guyanese. It's a melting pot of religions, cultures, holidays, and cuisines.

After a forty-five minute drive through dark jungle roads, we spotted the column still towers of DDL and pulled off onto a dirt entrance way. A guard opened up the gates and showed us the way to the guest houses towards the rear of the campus. We stepped carefully along the wet grass, through the symphony of insects buzzing and chirping, and into a cozy, three-bedroom flat that was stocked with everything we needed: tropical fruit and rum.

I awoke in the morning to the sound of birds chirping, but in a manner I wasn't used to. There were all types of whistling, calling, and singing emanating from the direction of my bedroom window, so I walked out to the balcony to have a look.  A family of white cranes and various yellow and red species that I couldn't identify were all fluttering about. The distillery was looming far off in the background.

And then I heard the sound of dishes clanking in the kitchen. Our new friend Britney was cooking away, fixing up eggs, bacon, fruit, and tea. 

The others eventually rose as well, slowly coaxed out of bed by the smell of breakfast frying away on the stove. We sat outside on the balcony and took in the scene. I asked Britney what one would normally eat in the morning here in Guyana, to which she replied, "Roti and various Indian dishes." We all agreed that, while the American breakfast was absolutely delicious, we'd all love to taste her Chana Masala." She beamed and flashed her incredible smile.

-David Driscoll